reduce smoke Abarth
Most truck and automotive diesel engines
Main article: Diesel cycle
P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1?4 in clockwise direction.
Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure, as the piston moves.
Otto cycle: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the cars internal combustion engines, that work using gasoline as a fuel. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was described for the four-stroke engine. It consists of the same four major steps: Intake, compression, ignition and exhaust.
PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram, 1?2: Intake: suction stroke 2?3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3?4: Heat addition stroke 4?5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic expansion) 5?2: Heat rejection The distance between points 1?2 is the stroke of the engine. By dividing V2/V1, we get: r, where r is called the compression ratio of the engine.
Surfaces in contact and relative motion
Diagram of an engine using pressurized lubrication
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Internal combustion piston engine lubrication systems.
Surfaces in contact and relative motion to other surfaces require lubrication to reduce wear, noise and increase efficiency by reducing the power wasting in overcoming friction, or to make the mechanism work at all. At the very least, an engine requires lubrication in the following parts:
Between pistons and cylinders
Big end bearings
Valve gear (The following elements may not be present):
Timing chain or gears. Toothed belts do not require lubrication.
Wikipedia facts - electric motor
An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, usually through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. Electric motors can be run as generators and vice versa, although this is not always practical. Electric motors are ubiquitous, being found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in the thousands of kilowatts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, and by their application.